Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)


LEG  - Any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard.

(EU, 2008, Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain directives, OJ L 312, 22.11.2008, pp. 3-30.)


EU Waste Framework Directive (EU, 2008) also defines:


Hazardous waste means waste which displays one or more of the hazardous properties listed in Annex III PROPERTIES OF WASTE WHICH RENDER IT HAZARDOUS of the EU Waste Framework Directive


Waste oils means any mineral or synthetic lubrication or industrial oils which have become unfit for the use for which they were originally intended, such as used combustion engine oils and gearbox oils, lubricating oils, oils for turbines and hydraulic oils


Bio-waste means biodegradable garden and park waste, food and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and retail premises and comparable waste from food processing plants


In the proposal for a modification of the RED from 2012 (ILUC proposal, EC, 2012c, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending amending Directive 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources), COM(2012) 595 final.), ‘Waste’ is defined as in Article 3 (1) of the EU Waste Framework Directive (EU, 2008). Substances that have been intentionally modified or contaminated to meet the definition of waste are not covered by this category. Article 2(1)(f) of the EU Waste Framework Directive (EU, 2008, Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain directives, OJ L 312, 22.11.2008, pp. 3-30) explicitly  excludes from the Directive’s scope ‘faecal matter, straw and other natural non-hazardous agricultural or forestry material used in farming, forestry or for the production of energy from such biomass through processes or methods which do not harm the environment or endanger human health’. In addition, Article 2(2)(b) of the same Directive excludes (to the extent that they are covered by other EU legislation) “animal by-products including processed products covered by Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002, except those which are destined for incineration, landfilling or use in a biogas or composting plant”.


STL - Residue left when a compound or a product reaches the end of its initial usefulness.

(Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012)', Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410.)


STA - Substances or objects which the holder intends or is required to dispose of.

(ISO, 2006a. EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.; ISO, 2006b. EN ISO 14044:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines. July 2006.)


Water footprint

STL - The water footprint is an indicator of direct and indirect appropriation of freshwater resources over the entire supply chain.

(Hoekstra, A.Y., Chapagain, A.K., Aldaya, M.M. and Mekonnen, M.M., 2011, The water footprint assessment manual: Setting the global standard, Earthscan, London, UK.)


Water stress

STL - Ratio of water demand over the total available water resources.  

(Pfister, S., Koehler, A., and Hellweg, S., 2009, 'Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Freshwater Consumption in LCA'. Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, pp. 4098–4104)


Weighting [LCA]

ECP - Weighting is an additional, but not mandatory, step that may support the interpretation and communication of the results of the analysis. Results of the environmental sustainability assessment are multiplied by a set of weighting factors, which reflect the perceived relative importance of the impact categories considered. Weighted results can be directly compared across impact categories, and also summed across impact categories to obtain a single-value overall impact indicator. Weighting requires making value judgements as to the respective importance of the impact categories considered. These judgements may be based on expert opinion, social science methods, cultural/political viewpoints, or economic considerations.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)


Well-to-wheel (WTW, WTT, TTW)

ECT - Methodology aiming at quantifying energy required for and GHG resulting from the production, transport, distribution and combustion of conventional and alternative road transportation fuels. Is commonly divided into WTT (Well-To-Tank) and TTW (Tank-To-Wheel).

(JRC, 2015, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IET,Sustainable Transport Unit, Marelli, L., Padella, M., Edwards, R., Moro, A., Kousoulidou, M., Giuntoli, J., Baxter, D., Vorkapic, V., Agostini, A., O’Connell, A., Lonza, L., 'The impact of Biofuels on transport and environment, and their connection to the agricultural development in Europe'. Report prepared by JRC-IET for the European Parliament.)


Wood-based panels

ORG -  Aggregate product category comprising veneer sheets, plywood, particle board, and fibreboard.

(UNECE/FAO/Eurostat/ITTO, 2014 Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire - Definitions)


Wood chips and particles

ORG - Wood that has been reduced to small pieces and is suitable for pulping, for particle board and/or fibreboard production, for use as a fuel, or for other purposes. It excludes wood chips made directly in the forest from roundwood (i.e. already counted as pulpwood or wood fuel).

(UNECE/FAO/Eurostat/ITTO, 2014 Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire - Definitions)


Wood fuel

ECT - Wood fuel is wood-based fuel in a form ready to use directly for generating energy, such as firewood, pellets and bio-liquids.

(ENTR, 2013, European Commission, Enterprise and Industry Directorate General,  Indufor, Study on the wood raw material supply and demand for the EU wood-processing industries, December 4, 2013)


ORG - Roundwood being used as fuel for purposes such as cooking, heating or power production. It includes wood harvested from main stems, branches and other parts of trees (where these are harvested for fuel) and wood that is used for the production of charcoal (e.g. in pit kilns and portable ovens), wood pellets and other agglomerates. It also includes wood chips to be used for fuel that are made directly (i.e. in the forest) from roundwood. It excludes wood charcoal, pellets and other agglomerates.

(UNECE/FAO/Eurostat/ITTO, 2014 Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire - Definitions)


Wood pellets

ORG - Agglomerates produced from co-products (such as cutter shavings, sawdust or chips) of the mechanical wood processing industry, furniture-making industry or other wood transformation activities. They are produced either directly by compression or by the addition of a binder in a proportion not exceeding 3% by weight. Such pellets are cylindrical, with a diameter not exceeding 25 mm and a length not exceeding 100 mm.

(UNECE/FAO/Eurostat/ITTO, 2014 Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire - Definitions)


Wood removals

ORG - The volume of all trees, living or dead, that are felled and removed from the forest, other wooded land or other felling sites.

(UNECE/FAO/Eurostat/ITTO, 2014 Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire - Definitions)