Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Uncertainty analysis [LCA]

STA - Systematic procedure to quantify the uncertainty introduced in the results of a life cycle inventory analysis due to the cumulative effects of model imprecision, input uncertainty and data variability.

- Note: either ranges or probability distributions are used to determine uncertainty in the results.

(ISO, 2006a EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)


Unit process

STA - Smallest element considered in the life cycle inventory analysis for which input and output data are quantified.

(ISO, 2006a EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)


Unutilised agricultural land

LEG - Area previously used as an agricultural area and, during the reference year of the survey, no longer worked for economic, social or other reasons and which is not used in the crop rotation system, i.e. land where no agricultural use is intended. This land could be brought back into cultivation using the resources normally available on an agricultural holding.

(EU, 2009b, Regulation (EC) No 1200/2009 of 30 November 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, as regards livestock unit coefficients and definitions of the characteristics, OJ L329, 15.12.2009, pp. 1-28.)


Upstream emissions

ECT - Upstream emissions for biomass fuels are considered the GHG emissions (usually including all fossil GHG emissions and biomass non-CO2 GHG) occurred during the extraction, processing and transportation of the biofuel to the final user. They are generally associated with the emissions calculated according to the Directive 2009/28/EC and Directive 2009/30 (in Annex V and Annex IV, respectively). They can be associated to the "direct emissions" as described in Section 3.1 of this report. They do not include emissions associated with direct or indirect Land Use change nor include any provision on the possible imbalances between the timing of emission and re-absorption of biogenic C neither any displacement effect on other markets.

(JRC, 2015, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IET,Sustainable Transport Unit, Marelli, L., Padella, M., Edwards, R., Moro, A., Kousoulidou, M., Giuntoli, J., Baxter, D., Vorkapic, V., Agostini, A., O’Connell, A., Lonza, L., 'The impact of Biofuels on transport and environment, and their connection to the agricultural development in Europe'. Report prepared by JRC-IET for the European Parliament.)


Upstream processes [ALG]

STL - The sequence of processes aiming at growing, harvesting and drying the microalgae biomass, as well as producing the lipids, carbohydrates and proteins that will be further processed in downstream processes.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)


Utilised agricultural area

LEG - It is the total area taken up by arable land, permanent grassland, permanent crops and kitchen gardens used by the holdings, regardless of the type of tenure or whether it is used as common land.

(EU, 2009a, Regulation (EC) No 543/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 concerning crop statistics and repealing Council Regulations (EEC) No 837/90 and (EEC) No 959/93, OJ L167, 29.06.2009, pp. 1-11.)


ECT (GLO) - It is the total area used for crop production, which is exhaustively described as: Arable land including temporary grassing and fallow and green manure, permanent grassland, land under permanent crops (e.g. fruit and grapes), crops under glass and other utilised agricultural areas.

(Eurostat a, Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database, accessed 14 October 2016)