S

Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
STAStandardsDICDictionaries
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Salvage logging

LEG - Any harvesting activity consisting of recovering timber that can still be used, at least in part, from lands affected by natural disturbances

(EU, 2013, Decision No 529/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 on accounting rules on greenhouse gas emissions and removals resulting from activities relating to land use, land-use change and forestry and on information concerning actions relating to those activities - OJ L 165, 18.6.2013, pp. 80–97.)

 

Salvage logging wood

ECT - Trees removed due to injurious agents, such as wind or ice storms or the spread of invasive epidemic forest pathogens, insects and diseases or other epidemic biological risks to the forest, but not removed due to competition.

(JRC, 2014, European Commission, Joint Research Centre – IET, Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy : Conclusions and recommendations from a critical literature reviewiew, Agostini, A., Giuntoli, J., Boulamanti, A., Marelli, L., 2014, EUR 25354 EN, Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union, 2014.)

 

Sawdust

ORG (GLO) - Fine particles created when sawing wood.

- Note: Most of the material has a typical particle length of 1 to 5 mm.

(FAO, 2004, Unified Bioenergy Terminology, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

Sawnwood

ECT - Sawnwood is wood that has been produced either by sawing lengthways or by a profile-chipping process and, with a few exceptions, is greater than 6 millimetres (mm) in thickness.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

ORG - Wood that has been produced from roundwood, either by sawing lengthways or by a profile-chipping process and that exceeds 6 mm in thickness. It includes planks, beams, joists, boards, rafters, scantlings, laths, boxboards and "lumber", etc., in the following forms: un-planed, planed, end-jointed, etc. 

(UNECE/FAO/Eurostat/ITTO, 2014 Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire - Definitions.)

 

DIC - The sawn product from a tree.

(SAF, 2015, Society of American Foresters, Dictionary of Forestry, http://www.eforester.org/Search?SearchTerms=dictionnary.)

 

Sensitivity analysis

ECP - Systematic procedures for estimating the effects of the choices made regarding methods and data on the results of a study.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

based on

STA - ISO, 2006a. EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)

 

Sensitivity check

STA - Process of verifying that the information obtained from a sensitivity analysis is relevant for reaching the conclusions and for giving recommendations.

(ISO, 2006a. EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)

 

Sequestration

ORG - The process of increasing the carbon content of a carbon pool other than the atmosphere.

(IPCC, 2006, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) on behalf of the IPCC.)

 

Set-aside Land

ECT - Land that farmers do not use for agricultural production.

(JRC, 2015, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IET,Sustainable Transport Unit, Marelli, L., Padella, M., Edwards, R., Moro, A., Kousoulidou, M., Giuntoli, J., Baxter, D., Vorkapic, V., Agostini, A., O’Connell, A., Lonza, L., 'The impact of Biofuels on transport and environment, and their connection to the agricultural development in Europe''. Report prepared by JRC-IET for the European Parliament)

 

Short Rotation Coppice (SRC)

OWN - Short Rotation Forestry done with coppice stands, i.e., stands made of trees with multiple stems growing out of the stool).

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand.)

 

Short Rotation Forestry (SRF)

OWN - Cultivation practice in which high density, fast growing tree species are planted for the production of woody biomass in a significantly shorter period than from conventional forest tree species plantations.

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand.)

 

ORG - Silvicultural practice in which high density, sustainable plantations of fast growing tree species produce wood biomass either on agricultural fertile lands, wastelands or degraded lands generally outside the traditional forests.  The trees are grown with single stems or as coppice systems, with a rotation period of less than 30 years and with an annual wood production of at least 10 tonnes DM/ha.

(IUFRO, The Global Network for Forest Science, unit 1.03.00 - Short-rotation forestry, http://www.iufro.org/science/divisions/division-1/10000/10300/, accessed 03 October  2016.)

 

Sink

ECP - Any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere is referred to as a "sink".

(EC, 2012d, European Commission MEMO: Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC), Brussels, 17 October 2012 (Last update: 28-07-2015).)

 

Slurry

ECT (GLO) - Manure in liquid form, that is to say a mixture of excrements and urine of domestic animals, including possibly also water and/or a small amount of litter.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Soil carbon

ORG - Organic carbon in mineral and organic soils (including peat) to a specified depth chosen by the country and applied consistently through the time series.

(FAO, 2010, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Terms and Definitions Working Paper 144/E Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

Soil organic carbon (SOC)

ECT - Is the amount of elemental carbon contained in Soil Organic Matter.

(JRC, 2014, European Commission, Joint Research Centre – IET, Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy : Conclusions and recommendations from a critical literature review, Agostini, A., Giuntoli, J., Boulamanti, A., Marelli, L., 2014, EUR 25354 EN, Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union, 2014.)

 

Soil organic matter (SOM)

ECP - Is the measure of the content of organic material in soil. This derives from plants and animals and comprises all of the organic matter in the soil exclusive of the matter that has not decayed.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Solvent

STL - A liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

Sparging [ALG]

STL - Intermittent addition of gaseous carbon dioxide to an algal growth culture through fine bubbles.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

Specific data [LCA]

ECP - Refers to directly measured or collected data representative of activities at a specific facility or set of facilities. Synonymous with “primary data”.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Stemwood

OWN - The wood of the stem(s) of a tree, i.e. the above ground main growing shoot(s). Stemwood includes wood in main axes and in major branches where there is at least X m of ‘straight’ length to Y cm top diameter.

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand)

 

Stocking density [AQU]

STL - A measure of the number of organisms in an aquaculture operation per surface area of water, or per unit volume of water.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.) 

 

Subdivision [LCA]

ECP - Subdivision refers to disaggregating multifunctional processes or facilities to isolate the input flows directly associated with each process or facility output. The process is investigated to see whether it can be subdivided. Where subdivision is possible, inventory data should be collected only for those unit processes directly attributable to the products/services of concern.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Sustainability

ORG (GLO) - (a) use of the biosphere by present generations while maintaining its potential yield (benefit) for future generations; and/or (b) non-declining trends of economic growth and development that might be impaired by natural resource depletion and environmental degradation.

(UN, 2015, United Nations, Environment Glossary, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environmentgl/, accessed 26 March 2015)

 

Sustainable development

ECT (GLO) - Economic growth and social progress which is sustainable in the future, not only for the present but also the coming generations. It combines economic development with protection of the environment and social justice.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

ORG (GLO) STA - Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

(UNWCED, 1987, UNWCED, 1987, Our Common Future, United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, New York;

UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Glossary of climate change acronyms.;

ISO, 2010, ISO 26000: 2010: Guidance on social responsibility. Last reviewed 2014-06-06.)

 

Sustainable forest management

ECP ORG - Stewardship and use of forest lands in a way and at a rate that maintains their productivity, biodiversity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions at local, national and global levels and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems."

(Forest Europe, UNECE & FAO, 2011, State of Europe's forests, 2011: status & trends in sustainable forest management in Europe, Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe, Forest Europe, Liaison Unit Oslo, Aas, Norway.;

EC, 2013b, Commission staff working document accompanying the document communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector. SWD(2013) 342 final.)

 

Synthetic fuels

ORG (GLO) - Any liquid fuel obtained from coal, natural gas or biomass. The best known process is the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. An intermediate step in the production of synthetic fuel is often syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from coal which is sometimes directly used as an industrial fuel.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015.)

 

System boundary [LCA]

ECP - Definition of aspects included or excluded from the study. For example, for a “cradle-to-grave” analysis, the system boundary should include all activities from the extraction of raw materials through the processing, distribution, storage, use, and disposal or recycling stages.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

STA - Set of criteria specifying which unit processes are part of a product system.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)