Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Raceway ponds

STL - Refer to the most common type of pond currently in use. These ponds utilize paddle wheel for agitation and mixing of the cultures, with flow rates ranging from 10-30 cm∙s-1, with depths ranging from 10-30 cm and individual ponds being up to 1 ha in area.

(Alabi, A.O., Tampier, M. and Bibeau, E., 2009, Microalgae technologies & processes for biofuels/bioenergy production in British Columbia: Current Technologies, Suitability & Barriers to Implementation, Seed Science Ltd.)


Radiative forcing

ORG - Radiative forcing is the change in the net, downward minus upward, radiative flux (expressed in W m – 2) at the tropopause or top of atmosphere due to a change in an external driver of climate change, such as, for example, a change in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) or the output of the sun.

(IPCC, 2014, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report' Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change'.)


Raw material

ECT (GLO) - Basic substances or mixtures of substances in an untreated state except for extraction and primary processing

(Eurostat c, Environmental Data Centre on Natural Resources, accessed 03 October 2016.)


Recovered wood

ECT - Recovered wood includes all kinds of wood material which, at the end of its life cycle in wooden products, is made available for re-use or recycling. Re-use can be either for material purposes or energy production. This group mainly includes used packaging materials, wood from demolition projects, unused or scrap timber from building sites. Sometimes referred as “post-consumer” or “post-use” wood.

(JRC, 2014, European Commission, Joint Research Centre – IET, Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy : Conclusions and recommendations from a critical literature review, Agostini, A., Giuntoli, J., Boulamanti, A., Marelli, L., 2014, EUR 25354 EN, Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union, 2014.)


Reduction fish

STL - Fish destined for processing into fishmeal and fish oil, especially small pelagic fish.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)


Reference flow [LCA]

STA - Measure of the outputs from processes in a given product system required to fulfil the function expressed by the functional unit.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.) 


Releases [LCA]

STA - Emissions to air and discharges to water and soil.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)



ECT (GLO) - Roundwood production (the term is also used as a synonym for removals in the context of forestry) comprises all quantities of wood removed from the forest and other wooded land, or other tree felling site during a defined period of time.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)


Renewable energy sources

ECT (GLO) - Also called renewables, are energy sources that replenish (or renew) themselves naturally, such as solar, wind, and tidal energy.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)


Renewable material

STA - Material that is composed of biomass and that can be continually replenished.

(EN 16575:2014 Adapted from EN ISO 14021:2001)

(EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation,  Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411) , Bio-based products – Vocabulary, Mandate M/492, August 2014.)



ORG - A component of the climate system, other than the atmosphere, which has the capacity to store, accumulate or release a substance of concern, for example, carbon, a greenhouse gas or a precursor. Oceans, soils and forests are examples of reservoirs of carbon. Pool is an equivalent term (note that the definition of pool often includes the atmosphere). The absolute quantity of the substance of concern held within a reservoir at a specified time is called the stock.

(IPCC, 2007, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Fourth Assessment Report: (AR4) 'Climate Change 2007'.)



ECP - Residues are divided into four main sub-categories: agricultural, forestry, aquaculture and fisheries, and processing residues.

A processing residue is a substance that is not the end product(s) that a production process directly seeks to produce. It is not a primary aim of the production process and the process has not been deliberately modified to produce it.

(EC, 2010, Communication from the Commission on the Practical Implementation of the EU Biofuels and Bioliquids Sustainability Scheme and on Counting Rules for Biofuels, (2010/C 160/02)  OJ C 160, 19 June pp 160/132010.)


AGE (GLO) - Something that is left over or, matter remaining after something has been removed.

(US Legal definition, http://definitions.uslegal.com/, accessed 27 March 2015.)


DIC - A small amount of something that remains after the main part has gone or been taken or used.

(Oxford Dictionaries, http://oxforddictionaries.com/)

- Note: The term does not define the quality of the leftovers. In this special case it does not define if a residue is waste or a by-product .


Resource depletion [LCA]

ECP - Impact category that addresses use of natural resources, either renewable or non-renewable, biotic or abiotic.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)



ORG - All roundwood felled or otherwise harvested and removed. It comprises all wood obtained from removals, i.e. the quantities removed from forests and from trees outside the forest, including wood recovered from natural, felling and logging losses during the period, calendar year or forest year. It includes all wood removed with or without bark, including wood removed in its round form, or split, roughly squared or in other form (e.g. branches, roots, stumps and burls - where these are harvested - and wood that is roughly shaped or pointed). It is an aggregate comprising wood fuel, including wood for charcoal and industrial roundwood (wood in the rough).

(UNECE/FAO/Eurostat/ITTO, 2014, Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire - Definitions.)


DIC - A length of cut tree generally having round cross section, such as a log or bolt.

(SAF, 2015, Society of American Foresters, Dictionary of Forestry, http://dictionaryofforestry.org)