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Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
STAStandardsDICDictionaries
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Particulate matter/Respiratory inorganics [LCA]

ECP - Impact category that accounts for the adverse health effects on human health caused by emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) and its precursors (NOx, SOx, NH3).

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Peatland

Peatlands are wetland ecosystems that are characterised by the accumulation of organic matter. This is produced and deposited at a greater rate than it is decomposed, leading to the formation of peat.

(http://www.peatsociety.org/)

 

Pelagic

STL - Living in the open ocean, as opposed to near shore or on the sea bottom.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)

 

Pen

ORG (GLO) - Fenced, netted structure fixed to the bottom substrate and allowing free water exchange; in the intertidal zone, it may be solid-walled; the bottom of the structure, however, is always formed by the natural bottom of the waterbody where it is built; usually coastal e.g. in shallow lagoons, but also inland e.g. in lakes, reservoirs. A pen generally encloses a relatively large volume of water.

(FAOa, Glossary of Aquaculture, http://www.fao.org/fi/glossary/aquaculture/default.asp, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Permanent crops

ECT (GLO) - Are ligneous crops, meaning trees or shrubs, not grown in rotation, but occupying the soil and yielding harvests for several (usually more than five) consecutive years. Permanent crops mainly consist of fruit and berry trees, bushes, vines and olive trees.

Permanent crops are usually intended for human consumption and generally yield a higher added value per hectare than annual crops. They also play an important role in shaping the rural landscape (through orchards, vineyards and olive tree plantations) and helping to balance agriculture within the environment.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

ORG - Crops are divided into temporary and permanent crops. Permanent crops are sown or planted once, and then occupy the land for some years and need not be replanted after each annual harvest, such as cocoa, coffee and rubber. This category includes flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees and vines, but excludes trees grown for wood or timber.

(FAO, 2001, 'Food balance sheets. A handbook, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

Permanent grassland and meadow

LEG - Land used permanently (for five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, through cultivation (sown) or naturally (self-seeded), and that is not included in the crop rotation on the holding. The land can be used for grazing or mown for silage, hay or used for renewable energy production.

(EU, 2009b, Regulation (EC) No 1200/2009 of 30 November 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, as regards livestock unit coefficients and definitions of the characteristics, OJ L329, 15.12.2009, pp. 1-28.)

 

ECT (GLO) - Land used permanently (for several - usually more than five - consecutive years)to grow herbaceous forage crops, through cultivation (sown) or naturally (self-seeded);not included in the crop rotation scheme on the agricultural holding.

Permanent grassland and meadow can be either used for grazing by livestock, or mowed for hay or silage (stocking in a silo).

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Photoautotroph

STL - Organisms that obtain their energy through the absorption of inorganic mineral ions in the presence of light.

(Richmond, A., 2004, Handbook of Microalgal Culture: Biotechnology and Applied Phycology, Amos Richmond (editor), 588 pp, Wiley-Blackwell.)

 

Photobioreactors (PBRs)

STL - Refer to enclosed systems for photosynthetic production of microalgae. PBRs can be located indoor utilizing light collection systems or outdoor using sunlight as the light source. A wide variety of PBRs have been designed, ranging from tubular and cylindrical systems, helical systems, flat sided systems to flexible tubing coiled around a cylindrical framework.

(Alabi, A.O., Tampier, M. and Bibeau, E., 2009, Microalgae technologies & processes for biofuels/bioenergy production in British Columbia: Current Technologies, Suitability & Barriers to Implementation, Seed Science Ltd.)

 

Photochemical ozone formation

ECP - Impact category that accounts for the formation of ozone at the ground level of the troposphere caused by photochemical oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sunlight. High concentrations of ground-level tropospheric ozone damage vegetation, human respiratory tracts and manmade materials through reaction with organic materials.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Photosynthesis

STL - The conversion of light energy into chemical energy using‖atmospheric CO2, operated by living organisms according to the following reaction:

6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 (sugars) + 6O2.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

Photosynthetic efficiency

STL - The amount of solar energy used in photosynthesis as a percentage of the total available solar energy.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

Planted forest

ORG - Forest predominantly composed of trees established through planting and/or deliberate seeding.

(FAO, 2010, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Terms and Definitions Working Paper 144/E Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

Plastic

STL - Generic term used in the case of polymeric material that may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs.

(Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012', Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410.)

 

Polymer

STL - Substance composed of macromolecules.

(Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012', Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410.)

 

Pond

ORG (GLO) - Relatively shallow and usually small body of still water or with a low refreshment rate, most frequently artificially formed, but can also apply to a natural pool, tarn, mere or small lake.

(FAOa, Glossary of Aquaculture, http://www.fao.org/fi/glossary/aquaculture/default.asp, accessed 23 September 2015.)

 

Primary crops

ORG - Primary crops are those which come directly from the land and without having undergone any real processing, apart from cleaning. They maintain all the biological qualities they had when they were still on the plants. Certain primary crops can be aggregated, with their actual weight, into totals offering meaningful figures on area, yield, production and utilization; for example, cereals, roots and tubers, nuts, vegetables and fruits. Other primary crops can be aggregated only in terms of one or the other component common to all of them. For example, primary crops of the oil-bearing group can be aggregated in terms of oil or oil cake equivalent. Primary crops are divided into temporary and permanent crops. Temporary crops are those which are both sown and harvested during the same agricultural year, sometimes more than once; permanent crops are sown or planted once and not replanted after each annual harvest.

(FAO, 2001, 'Food balance sheets. A handbook, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

Primary energy consumption

ECT (GLO) - Covers consumption of the energy sector itself, losses during transformation (for example, from oil or gas into electricity) and distribution of energy, and the final consumption by end users. It excludes energy carriers used for non-energy purposes (such as petroleum not used not for combustion but for producing plastics).

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

ORG (GLO) - The direct use at the source, or supply to users without transformation, of crude energy, that is, energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process.

(OECD, Glossary of Statistical Terms, http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/, accessed 25 March 2015.)

 

Primary forest

ORG - Naturally regenerated forest of native species, where there are no clearly visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed

(FAO, 2010, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Terms and Definitions Working Paper 144/E Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

Primary production of energy

ECT (GLO) - Any extraction of energy products in a useable form from natural sources. This occurs either when natural sources are exploited (for example, in coal mines, crude oil fields, hydro power plants) or in the fabrication of biofuels.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Primary forest

STL - Areas of usually old forest with natura forest structure and dynamics, lacking anthropogenic influences from the past to the present.

(Leibundgut, H., 1982. Europäische Urwälder der Bergstufe. Verlag Paul Haupt, Bern, Stuttgart.)

 

Process [LCA]

STA - Set of interrelated or interacting activities that transforms inputs into outputs.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)

 

Process energy [LCA]

STA - Energy input required for operating the process or equipment within a unit process.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)

 

Product [LCA]

STA - Any goods or service.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.;

ISO, 2006b, EN ISO 14044:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines. July 2006.)

 

Product system [LCA]

STA - Collection of unit processes with elementary and product flows, performing one or more defined functions, and which models the life cycle of a product.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)

 

Protected areas

ORG - Areas especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means.

(FAO, 2010, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Terms and Definitions Working Paper 144/E Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

ORG (GLO) - Legally established land or water area under either public or private ownership that is regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives.

(OECD, Glossary of Statistical Terms, http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/, accessed 25 March 2015.)

 

Pulpwood

OWN - Roundwood that is primarily intended for the production of pulp, particleboard or fibreboard. It includes: roundwood (with or without bark) in its round form or as splitwood or wood chips made directly (i.e. in the forest) from roundwood.

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand.)