L

Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
STAStandardsDICDictionaries
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Land

ECT - Land is a term widely used throughout the world but definitions are not frequently given. The interdepartmental working group on land use planning (IDWG-LUP) at FAO proposed in 1994 the following definition: "A delineable area of the earth's terrestrial surface, embracing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface, including those of the near surface climate, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps, the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater and geohydrological reserves, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, buildings, etc.)".

The question of the area to be taken into consideration is also introduced through the former definition: "all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below the surface". For land cover, the question is easily solved: the reference area for land is above the surface (see definitions next chapter). For land use, the situation is more complex: from a pragmatic point of view and considering the importance and the significance in terms of economic value of multiple-use aspects for "urban" areas, the understanding of land should also embrace uses above and below ground level. Particular problems may be found with mine deposits, subways beneath urban areas, water resources, mushroom beds, etc. For example: areas used for oil extraction; is it the whole field of extraction (and to a certain extent the whole oil concession), or is it limited to the oil well itself?

In order to limit potential problems it is proposed to restrict its application to reasonable cases. It is suggested to allow "urban" uses above and below ground level (case of buildings with shops at ground level, flats and offices above, car parks below). The most important problem remains in fact with extraction activities of natural resources (including water resources). Considering this difficulty (and also the difficult task to collect appropriate data) it is suggested to restrict the extension of such uses to their physical impact at ground level (oil well, entrance of mushroom beds etc.). This principle may be generalised for any kind of uses.

Given the context of global information systems of land cover and land use and the difficulty to establish clear thresholds between land and water (particularly for wetlands), it is recommended to extend the concept of land to inland water areas and tidal flats. This approach and proposal of definition is to be clearly separated from the concepts utilised by statisticians for the determination of land area used for statistical purposes. Eurostat has recently proposed the concept of Land area to be used for statistical purposes, therefore excluding lakes, rivers and coastal areas. This is easily understood in the context for example of calculation of population densities where 17% of a country such as Netherlands is covered by water areas. The Eurostat approach is driven by the necessity to provide harmonised statistical data, the best example being the calculation of densities of population (figures for the Netherlands are changing dramatically if water areas are included within the total area of the country.

(Eurostat, 2001, Manual of concepts on land cover and land use information systems (2000 Edition), European Commission, ISBN 92-894-0432-9.)

 

Land Cover

ECT (GLO) - Refers to the observed (bio) physical cover of the Earth's surface.

The main classes in the LUCAS land cover nomenclature are as follows:

A00        Artificialland

B00         Cropland

C00         Woodland

D00        Shrubland

E00         Grassland

F00         Bareland

G00        Water

H00        Wetland

Various biophysical categories can be distinguished:

•             areas of vegetation (trees, bushes, crops, grasses, herbs);

•             artificialland (buildings, roads);

•             baresoil (rock, sand);

•             wet areas and bodies of water (sheets of water and watercourses, wetlands).

Land cover corresponds to the physical coverage of the earth’s surface.

Land cover can be observed in many ways, e.g. by field visits, aerial photographs or satellite sensors.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

ECT - It corresponds to a physical description of space, the observed (bio) physical cover of the earth's surface. It is that which overlays or currently covers the ground. This description enables various biophysical categories to be distinguished - basically, areas of vegetation (trees, bushes, fields, lawns), bare soil (even if this is a lack of cover), hard surfaces (rocks, buildings) and wet areas and bodies of water (sheets of water and watercourses, wetlands). This definition has impacts on development of classification systems, data collection and information systems in general. It is said that Land Cover is "observed". This means that observation can be made from various "sources of observation" at different distances between the source and the earth's surface: the human eye, aerial photographs, satellite sensors.

(Eurostat, 2001, Manual of concepts on land cover and land use information systems (2000 Edition), European Commission, ISBN 92-894-0432-9.)

 

Landfill

ORG (GLO) - The final placement of waste in or on the land in a controlled or uncontrolled way according to different sanitary, environmental protection and other safety requirements.

(OECD, Glossary of Statistical Terms, http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/, accessed 25 March 2015.)

 

Land use [LCA]

ECP - Impact category related to use (occupation) and conversion (transformation) of land area by activities such as agriculture, roads, housing, mining, etc. Land occupation considers the effects of the land use, the amount of area involved and the duration of its occupation (changes in quality multiplied by area and duration).

Land transformation considers the extent of changes in land properties and the area affected (changes in quality multiplied by the area).

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Land use

ECT (GLO) - Refers to the socio-economic purpose of the land. Areas of land can be used for residential, industrial, agricultural, forestry, recreational, transport etc. purposes.

Often the same land is used for several purposes at the same time; e.g., woodland can be use for forestry, hunting and recreational purposes.

The main classes in the LUCAS land use nomenclature are as follows:

 

U110      Agriculture

U120      Forestry

U130      Fishing

U140      Mining and quarrying

U150      Hunting

U210      Energy production

U220      Industry and manufacturing

U310      Transport, communication networks, storage and protective works

U320      Water and waste treatment

U330      Construction

U340      Commerce, finance and business

U350      Community services

U360      Recreational, leisure and sport

U370      Residential

U400      Unused

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

ECT - For land use, various approaches are proposed into the literature. Two main "schools" may be distinguished. Land use in terms of functional dimension corresponds to the description of areas in terms of their socio-economic purpose: areas used for residential, industrial or commercial purposes, for farming or forestry, for recreational or conservation purposes, etc. Links with land cover are possible; it may be possible to infer land use from land cover and conversely. But situations are often complicated and the link is not so evident. Another approach, termed sequential, has been particularly developed for agricultural purposes. The definition is a series of operations on land, carried out by humans, with the intention to obtain products and/or benefits through using land resources. For example a sequence of operations such as ploughing, seeding, weeding, fertilising and harvesting.

Contrary to land cover, land use is difficult to "observe". For example, it is often difficult to decide if grasslands are used or not for agricultural purposes. The information coming from the source of observation may not be sufficient and may require additional information. In the case of agricultural use, farmers may bring information, for example if cattle are present or not, if they are grazing. It is also possible to use characteristics on the spot indicating the presence or absence of cattle. For the “functional” approach, inference from land cover may be helpful. For the “sequential” approach, a more exhaustive recording of various attributes will be needed, for example a multi-temporal approach.

(Eurostat, 2001, Manual of concepts on land cover and land use information systems (2000 Edition), European Commission, ISBN 92-894-0432-9.)

 

Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

ORG (GLO) - A greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use, land-use change and forestry activities.

(UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Glossary of climate change acronyms.)

 

Life cycle [LCA]

ECP STA - Consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.;

ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.) 

 

Life-Cycle Approach [LCA]

ECP - Takes into consideration the spectrum of resource flows and environmental interventions associated with a product from a supply-chain perspective, including all stages from raw material acquisition through processing, distribution, use, and end-of-life processes, and all relevant related environmental impacts (instead of focusing on a single issue).

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)

ECP - Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an internationally standardised methodology. (ISO 14040:2006) LCA helps to quantify the environmental pressures related to goods and services (products), the environmental benefits, the trade-offs and areas for achieving improvements taking into account the full life cycle of the product. Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) and Life-Cycle Impact assessment (LCIA) are consecutive parts of a Life-Cycle Assessment, where:

-              Life-Cycle Inventory is the collection and analysis of environmental interventions data (e.g. emissions to e.g. air and water, waste generation and resource consumption) which are associated with a product from the extraction of raw materials through production and use to final disposal, including recycling, reuse, and energy recovery.

-              Life-Cycle Impact Assessment is the estimation of indicators of the environmental pressures in terms of e.g. climate change, summer smog, resource depletion, acidification, human health effects, etc. associated with the environmental interventions attributable to the life-cycle of a product.

The data used in LCA should be consistent and quality assured and reflects actual industrial process chains. Methodologies should reflect a best consensus based on current practice.

(http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ipp/lca.htm)

 

STA - The compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.;

ISO, 2006b, EN ISO 14044:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines. July 2006.)

 

Life-Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA)

STA - Phase of life-cycle assessment aimed at understanding and evaluating the magnitude and significance of the Potential environmental impacts for a product system throughout the life cycle of the product.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)

 

Life-cycle interpretation

STA - Phase of life-cycle assessment in which the findings of either the inventory analysis or the impact assessment, or both, are evaluated in relation to the defined goal and scope in order to reach conclusions and recommendations.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)

 

Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis (LCI)

STA - Phase of life-cycle assessment involving the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs for a product throughout its life cycle.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)

 

Life-cycle inventory analysis result (LCI result)

STA - Outcome of a life-cycle inventory analysis that catalogues the flows crossing the system boundary and provides the starting point for life cycle impact assessment.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)

 

Lignin

STL - Class of complex organic polymers supporting tissues of vascular plants. Such complex aromatic heteropolymers, stiffen and fortify secondary cell walls within xylem tissues, creating a dense matrix that binds cellulose microfibrils and crosslinks other wall components, thereby preventing the collapse of conductive vessels, lending biomechanical support to stems, and allowing plants to adopt an erect-growth habit.

(Martone, PT, Estevez, JM, Lu, F; Ruel, K, Denny, MW, Somerville, C; Ralph, J (2009). Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell-Wall Architecture. Current biology: CB 19 (2): 169–75. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.031.)

 

DIC - Complex oxygen-containing organic substance that, with cellulose, forms the chief constituent of wood. It is second only to cellulose as the most abundant organic material on Earth. [...] It is a mixture of complex, apparently polymeric compounds of poorly known structure. Lignin is concentrated in the cell walls of wood and makes up 24–35 percent of the oven-dry weight of softwoods and 17–25 percent of hardwoods.

(Encyclopædia Britannica, 2015, 2015, http://academic.eb.com/, accessed 23 September 2015.)

 

Livestock

ORG - Animals such as cattle and sheep which are kept on the holding or otherwise for agricultural production.

(FAO, 1996, 'Conducting agricultural censuses and surveys', FAO Statistical Development Series, No. 6, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

ORG - It refers to all animals, birds and insects kept or reared in captivity mainly for agricultural purposes. This includes cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and pigs, as well as poultry, bees and silkworms. Domestic animals, such as cats and dogs, are excluded unless they are being raised for food or other agricultural purposes.

(FAO, 2005, A system of integrated agricultural censuses and surveys. Volume 1: World Programme for the Census of Agriculture 2010, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

Lipid extraction [ALG]

STL - Process of removing lipids from a plant or microorganism. May be accomplished using a mechanical or solvent based process.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

Lipids

STL - Broadly defined as any fat-soluble, naturally-occurring compounds, such as fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K, monoglycerides, diglycerides, or phospholipids.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

Live weight of fishery products

ECT (GLO) - Live weight of fishery products is derived from the landed or product weight by the application of certain factors and is designed to represent the actual weight of the fishery product as it was taken from the water and before being subjected to any processing or other operations.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Livestock manure

LEG - Waste products excreted by livestock: or a mixture of litter and waste products excreted by livestock, even in processed form.

(EEC, 1991, Council Directive 91/676/EEC of 12 December 1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources. OJ L375, 31.12.1991, pp. 1–8.)

 

Loading rate

ECP - Ratio of actual load to the full load or capacity (e.g. mass) that a vehicle carries per trip.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Logging residues

OWN - The wood left in the forest after forestry logging operations. These residues generally include woody debris from final felling (e.g. branches, leaves, stumps, roots, tops, bark), small trees from thinning and clearing operations and generally un-merchantable stem wood.

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand)

 

Low-carbon technologies

ORG (GLO) - Technologies that produce low – or zero – greenhouse-gas emissions while operating. In the power sector this includes fossil-fuel plants fitted with carbon capture and storage, nuclear plants and renewable-based generation technologies.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015.)

 

Lower Heating Value (LHV)

Also known as net calorific value or lower calorific value. It represents the amount of heat released during combustion of a specified amount of fuel in specific conditions. It can be differentiated between HHV (High Heating Value or Gross Calorific Value or Gross Heating Value) and LHV depending whether the water produced during the combustion (physical moisture and produced during oxidation) is condensed to liquid form (HHV) or released as vapour (LHV). The methodology to measure the Calorific values of solid biofuels is defined by the European Standard EN 14918:2009. The definition of LHV used in the RED for co-products allocation is: LHV (wet) = LHV (dry) (1-Moisture content) – 2.441 * (Moisture content).