G

Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
STAStandardsDICDictionaries
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Gate to gate [LCA]

ECP - A partial product’s supply chain that includes only the processes carried out on a product within a specific organisation or site.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Gate to grave [LCA]

ECP - A partial product’s supply chain that includes only the distribution, storage, use, and disposal or recycling stages.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Generic data [LCA]

ECP - Refers to data that is not directly collected, measured, or estimated, but rather sourced from a third-party life-cycle-inventory database or other source.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Global Temperature change Potential (GTP)

ORG - Compared to the Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) goes one step further down the cause–effect chain and is defined as the change in global mean surface temperature at a chosen point in time in response to an emission pulse—relative to that of CO2. Whereas GWP is integrated in time, GTP is an end-point metric that is based on temperature change for a selected year, t. Like for the GWP, the impact from CO2 is normally used as reference, where AGTP is the absolute GTP giving temperature change per unit emission. Like GWP, the GTP values can be used for weighting the emissions to obtain ‘CO2 equivalents’.

(IPCC, 2014, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report 'Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change'.)

 

Global warming

ORG - Global warming refers to the gradual increase, observed or projected, in global surface temperature, as one of the consequences of radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions.

(IPCC, 2014, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report 'Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change'.)

 

AGE (GLO) - Global warming is an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns. Global warming can occur from a variety of causes, both natural and human induced. In common usage, “global warming” often refers to the warming that can occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities.

(US EPA, 2015, Terminology Services. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. https://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/termsandacronyms/search.do, accessed 24 October 2016)

 

Global warming potential (GWP)

ECP - Capacity of a greenhouse gas to influence radiative forcing, expressed in terms of a reference substance (for example, CO2-equivalent units) and specified time horizon (e.g. GWP 20, GWP 100, GWP 500, for 20, 100, and 500 years respectively). It relates to the capacity to influence changes in the global average surface-air temperature and subsequent change in various climate parameters and their effects, such as storm frequency and intensity, rainfall intensity and frequency of flooding, etc.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

ECT (GLO) - It is a term used to describe the relative potency, molecule for molecule, of a greenhouse gas, taking account of how long it remains active in the atmosphere.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

ORG - An index, based on radiative properties of greenhouse gases (GHGs), measuring the radiative forcing following a pulse emission of a unit mass of a given GHG in the present-day atmosphere integrated over a chosen time horizon, relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO2). The GWP represents the combined effect of the differing times these gases remain in the atmosphere and their relative effectiveness in causing radiative forcing. The Kyoto Protocol is based on GWPs from pulse emissions over a 100-year time frame.

(IPCC, 2014) When calculated for a single gas species, independently from the reference gas CO2 the index is called Absolute Global Warming Potential (AGWP).

(IPCC, 2014, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report ' Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change'.)

 

Grassland

ORG (GLO) - The land used permanently to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild.

(FAOc, FAO Statistics Division, http://faostat.fao.org/site/375/default.aspx, accessed 23 September 2015.)

 

Green chemistry

AGE STL - Green chemistry, also known as sustainable chemistry, is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances.

Green chemistry applies across the life cycle of a chemical product, including its design, manufacture, and use.

(Anastas et al., 1998, Anastas, PT., Warner, J., 1998, Green Chemistry. Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press, New York.;

US EPA, 2011, Green Chemistry Research. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency )

 

STL - Design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of substances hazardous to humans, animals, plants, and the environment.

(Vert et al., 2012, Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012 ', Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410.)

 

Greenhouse gas (GHG)

ECT (GLO) - Greenhouse gases constitute a group of gases contributing to global warming and climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, an environmental agreement adopted by many of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1997 to curb global warming, covers six greenhouse gases:

- the non-fluorinated gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) , nitrous oxide (N2O)

- the fluorinated gases: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

Converting them to carbon dioxide (or CO2) equivalents makes it possible to compare them and to determine their individual and total contributions to global warming.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

ORG (GLO) - The atmospheric gases responsible for causing global warming and climate change. The major GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N20). Less prevalent - but very powerful - greenhouse gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).

(UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Glossary of climate change acronyms.)

 

ORG - Greenhouse gases are those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of terrestrial radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface, the atmosphere itself, and by clouds. This property causes the greenhouse effect. Water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ozone (O3) are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. Moreover, there are a number of entirely human-made greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as the halocarbons and other chlorine- and bromine-containing substances, dealt with under the Montreal Protocol. Beside CO2, N2O and CH4, the Kyoto Protocol deals with the greenhouse gases sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs).

(IPCC, 2014, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report , 'Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change'.)

 

Groundfish

STL - A common name for several species of demersal finfish, particularly commercial species such as cod.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)

 

Gross Annual Increment

OWN - Annual volume of increment of all trees. Includes the increment of trees which have been felled or have died during the reference period.

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand)

 

Gross final energy consumption

ECT - The energy supplied in industry, transport, households, the service sector, including the public sector, agriculture, forestry and fishery, including the electricity and heat consumed by the energy sector for the electricity and heat production and losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transfer.

(EU, 2009c, Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC,OJ L 140/16, 05.06.2009..)

 

Growing stock

ORG - The living tree component of the standing volume.

(UNECE/FAO, 2000, Main report, Forest Resources of Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and New Zealand (TBFRA 2000) , UNECE/FAO Contribution to the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. United Nations, New York and Geneva.)

 

ORG - Volume over bark of all living trees more than X cm in diameter at breast height. It includes the stem from ground level or stump height up to a top diameter of Y cm, and may also include branches to a minimum diameter of W cm. Countries indicate the three thresholds (X, Y, W in cm) and the parts of the tree that are not included in the volume.

(IPCC, 2006, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) on behalf of the IPCC.)

 

Growing stock volume

ORG - Volume over bark of all living trees more than X cm in diameter at breast height (or above buttress if these are higher). Includes the stem from ground level or stump height up to a top diameter of Y cm, and may also include branches to a minimum diameter of W cm.

(FAO, 2010, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Terms and Definitions Working Paper 144/E Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)