F

Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
STAStandardsDICDictionaries
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Fallow land

LEG - All arable land included in the crop rotation system, whether worked or not, but with no intention to produce a harvest for the duration of a crop year. The essential characteristic of fallow land is that it is left to recover, normally for the whole of a crop year. Fallow land may be:

-              Bare land bearing no crops at all.

-              Land with spontaneous natural growth, which may be used as feed or ploughed in.

-              Land sown exclusively for the production of green manure (green fallow).

(EU, 2009b, Regulation (EC) No 1200/2009 of 30 November 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods, as regards livestock unit coefficients and definitions of the characteristics, OJ L329, 15.12.2009, pp. 1-28.

 

ORG (GLO) - Fallow land (temporary) is the cultivated land that is not seeded for one or more growing seasons. The maximum idle period is usually less than five years. Land remaining fallow for two long may acquire characteristics requiring to be reclassified, such as "permanent meadows and pastures" (if used for grazing), "forest or wooded land" (if overgrown with trees), or "other land" (if it becomes wasteland). Data are expressed in 1000 hectares.

(FAOc, FAO Statistics Division, http://faostat.fao.org/site/375/default.aspx, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

AGE (GLO) - Arable land not under rotation that is set at rest for a period of time ranging from one to five years before it is cultivated again, or land usually under permanent crops, meadows or pastures, which is not being used for that purpose for a period of at least one year. Arable land which is normally used for the cultivation of temporary crops but which is temporarily used for grazing is included.

(EEA, European Environment Agency, Glossary: Environmental Terminology and Discovery Service (ETDS), http://glossary.eea.europa.eu//, accessed 19 March 2015.)

 

Feed

LEG ECT (GLO) - Feed (or feedingstuff) is any substance or product, including additives, whether processed, partially processed or unprocessed, intended to be used for oral feeding to animals.

(EU, 2002, Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. OJ L31, 1.2.2002, pp. 1–24..;

Eurostat b, Glossary,  accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Feed conversion ratio

STL - A measure of the ability to convert animal feed into animal meat, expressed as the ratio of live weight gain to feed ingested.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)

 

Feedstock

STL - A raw material going into a chemical process or plant as input to be converted into a product.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

AGE - A feedstock is defined as any renewable, biological material that can be used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product.

(Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, http://www.energy.gov/eere/bioenergy/biomass-feedstocks, accessed 30 September 2016)

 

DIC - Raw material to supply a machine or industrial process.

(Oxford Dictionaries, http://oxforddictionaries.com/)

 

Fellings

OWN - Volume of all trees that are felled during a given period, whether or not they are removed from the forest. Felling is the process of downing individual trees.

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand)

 

DIC - The cutting down of trees

(SAF, 2015, Society of American Foresters, Dictionary of Forestry, http://www.eforester.org/Search?SearchTerms=dictionnary)

 

Final energy consumption

ECT (GLO) - The total energy consumed by end users, such as households, industry, agriculture, transport, services, others. It is the energy which reaches the final consumer and excludes that which is used by the energy sector itself.

Final energy consumption excludes energy used by the energy sector, including for deliveries, and transformation. It also excludes fuel transformed in the electrical power stations of industrial auto-producers and coke transformed into blast-furnace gas where this is not part of overall industrial consumption but of the transformation sector.

(Eurostat b, Glossary,  accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Finfish

AGE (GLO) - Vertebrate and cartilaginous fishery species, not including crustaceans, cephalopods, or other mollusks.

(NOAA, 2006, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 'NOAA Fisheries Glossary', NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-69, 71 pp. Revised Edition, June 2006.)

 

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis

ORG (GLO) - Catalytic production process for the production of synthetic fuels. Natural gas, coal and biomass feedstocks can be used.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Fish catch (or simply catch)

ECT (GLO) - Refers to catches of fishery products including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and other aquatic animals, residues and aquatic plants that are taken:

-              for all purposes (commercial, industrial, recreational and subsistence);

-              by all types and classes of fishing units (including fishermen, vessels, gear, etc.); that are

-              operating in inland, fresh and brackish water areas, and in inshore, offshore and high-seas fishing areas.

Production from aquaculture is excluded. Catch is normally expressed in live weight and derived by the application of conversion factors to the actual landed or product weight. As such, the catch statistics exclude quantities of fishery products which are caught but which, for a variety of reasons, are not landed.

(Eurostat b, Glossary,  accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Fish oil

STL - Usually a byproduct of the fishmeal manufacturing process, used for pharmaceuticals, fish feeds, and for direct human consumption.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)

 

Fisheries management

ORG (GLO) - The integrated process of information gathering, analysis, planning, decision making, allocation of resources and formulation and enforcement of fishery regulations by which the fisheries management authority controls the present and future behaviours of the interested parties in the fishery, in order to ensure the continued productivity of the living resources.

(FAOb, Fisheries Glossary, http://www.fao.org/fi/glossary/default.asp, accessed 23 September 2015.)

 

Fishery products

ECT (GLO) - In the context of external trade statistics, fishery products consist of:

-              edible fishery products, including:

                •             fresh, chilled, frozen, salted, smoked and dried fish;

                •             fish preserves and conserves;

                •             fresh, chilled, frozen, dried and smoked crustaceans and molluscs;

                •             preparations and conserves of crustaceans and molluscs;

-              inedible products, including:

                •             meals and solubles;

                •             oils and fats;

                •             sponges, corals, etc.;

-              aquatic plants.

(Eurostat b, Glossary,  accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Fishing area

ECT (GLO) - Geographical fishing areas in the European Union Common fisheries policy are defined for a number of specific areas of water:

-              the north-east Atlantic, which is roughly the area to the east of 42°W longitude and north of 36°N latitude, including the waters of the Baltic Sea;

-              the north-west Atlantic, which is the region that is roughly the area to the west of 42°W longitude and north of 35°N latitude;

-              the eastern central Atlantic, which is the region to the east of 40°W longitude between latitudes 36°N and 6°S;

-              the Mediterranean, which is also known as the Food and Agriculture Organization Major Fishing Area 37, comprises the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Black Sea.

(Eurostat b, Glossary,  accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Fishing fleet

ECT (GLO) - The data on the number of fishing vessels, the fishing fleet, in general refer to the fleet size as recorded on 31 December of the specified reference year. The data are derived from the national registers of fishing vessels which are maintained according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 26/2004 which specifies the information on vessel characteristics to be recorded in the registers.

(Eurostat b, Glossary,  accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Fishmeal

STL - Cooked, pressed, dried, and milled fish, usually small pelagic fish, used for animal feeds.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)

 

Flex fuel

ORG (GLO) - A vehicle that has one fuel system but can mix different types of fuels, such as gasoline/ethanol, in the same tank, in any (or a wide range of) mixtures.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term,, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Food

LEG ECT (GLO) - Food (or foodstuff) relates to any substance or product, whether processed, partially processed or unprocessed, intended to be, or reasonably expected to be ingested by humans.

(EU, 2002, Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. OJ L31, 1.2.2002, pp. 1–24.;

(Eurostat b, Glossary,  accessed 14 October 2016.)

 

Food balance sheets

ORG - The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has given considerable importance to furthering the development of food balance sheets, reflecting their usefulness in analyzing the food situation at the level of individual countries. Food balance sheets present a comprehensive picture of the pattern of a country's food supply during a specified reference period. The first attempts at preparing food balance sheets date back to World War I. Food balance sheets were the major source of data when, in 1936, at the request of the League of Nations Mixed Committee on the Problem of Nutrition and its Sub-Committee on Nutritional Statistics, a systematic international comparison of food consumption data was prepared.

(FAO, 2001, 'Food balance sheets. A handbook, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. )

 

Foreground Processes [LCA]

ECP - Refer to those processes in the product life cycle for which direct access to information is available. For example, the producer’s site and other processes operated by the producer or its contractors (e.g. goods transport, head-office services, etc.) belong to the foreground processes.

(EC, 2013a,  Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210..)

 

Forest

LEG - Area of land defined by the minimum values for area size, tree crown cover or an equivalent stocking level, and potential tree height at maturity at the place of growth of the trees, as specified for each Member State in Annex V. It includes areas with trees, including groups of growing young natural trees, or plantations that have yet to reach the minimum values for tree crown cover or equivalent stocking level or minimum tree height as specified in Annex V, including any area that normally forms part of the forest area but on which there are temporarily no trees as a result of human intervention, such as harvesting, or as a result of natural causes, but which area can be expected to revert to forest.

(EU, 2013, Decision No 529/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 on accounting rules on greenhouse gas emissions and removals resulting from activities relating to land use, land-use change and forestry and on information concerning actions relating to those activities - OJ L 165, 18.6.2013, pp. 80–97..)

 

ECP ORG - Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of more than 10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban use. Other wooded land is a land not classified as forest.

(FAO, 2010, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Terms and Definitions Working Paper 144/E Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.;

EC, 2013b, Commission staff working document accompanying the document communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector. SWD(2013) 342 final.)

 

Forests available for wood supply (FAWS)

ECP ORG - Forests where no legal, economic or specific environmental restrictions have a significant impact on the supply of wood.

(UNECE/FAO, 2000, Main report, Forest Resources of Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and New Zealand (TBFRA 2000), UNECE/FAO Contribution to the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. United Nations, New York and Geneva. ;

EC, 2013b, Commission staff working document accompanying the document communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector. SWD(2013) 342 final.)

 

Forest management

LEG - Any activity resulting from a system applicable to a forest that influences the ecological, economic or social functions of the forest

(EU, 2013, Decision No 529/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 on accounting rules on greenhouse gas emissions and removals resulting from activities relating to land use, land-use change and forestry and on information concerning actions relating to those activities - OJ L 165, 18.6.2013, pp. 80–97..)

 

DIC - The practical application of biological, physical, quantitative, managerial, economic, social, and policy principles to the regeneration, management, utilization, and conservation of forests to meet specified goals and objectives while maintaining the productivity of the forest

-              Note: forest management includes management for aesthetics, fish, recreation, urban values, water, wilderness, wildlife, wood products, and other forest resource values.

(SAF, 2015, Society of American Foresters, Dictionary of Forestry, http://www.eforester.org/Search?SearchTerms=dictionnary)

 

DIC - The profession embracing the science, art, and practice of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources for human benefit and in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values

-              Note: the broad field of forestry consists of those biological, quantitative, managerial, and social sciences that are applied to forest management and conservation; it includes specialized fields such as agroforestry, urban forestry, industrial forestry, nonindustrial forestry, and wilderness and recreation forestry.

(SAF, 2015, Society of American Foresters, Dictionary of Forestry, http://www.eforester.org/Search?SearchTerms=dictionnary)

 

Forestry residues

OWN - Forestry residues can be primary or secondary.

Primary forestry residues are left over from logging operations - thinning or final felling (branches, stumps. tree tops, bark, sawdust etc.). Same as logging residues (see logging residues in the glossary).

Secondary forestry residues are by-products and co-products of industrial wood-processing operation (bark, sawmill slabs, saw dust, wood chips etc.)

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand)

 

Fossil fuel parity

ECT - The moment in time (the payback time) when the bioenergy system and the fossil reference have emitted the same amount of carbon.

(JRC, 2014, European Commission, Joint Research Centre – IET, Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy : Conclusions and recommendations from a critical literature review, Agostini, A., Giuntoli, J., Boulamanti, A., Marelli, L., 2014, EUR 25354 EN, Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union, 2014.)

 

Fouling [ALG]

STL - Refers to the accumulation and deposition of living organisms and certain non-living material on hard surfaces, most often in an aquatic environment.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

Fry

STL - Juvenile fish able to obtain their own food.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)

 

Fuel

ORG (GLO) - Energy carrier intended for energy conversion.

(FAO, 2004, Unified Bioenergy Terminology, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

STA - Note 1 to entry: fuels are solid, liquid or gaseous

(EN ISO 16559:2014, European Committee for Standardisation and International Standards Organisation, European Standarts, Solid biofuels - Terminology, definitions and descriptions, Mandate M/298)

 

STL - Note: In the context of the bioeconomy fuel is mainly used as a term for liquid fuels (petrol and diesel fuels) while gaseous and solid fuels normally are not included.

 (Nova-Institute, 2014,'Annex V' in Study on "Methodology framework for the bioeconomy observatory"' - BISO Project - January 2014.)

 

Fuel wood

ECT - Wood destined to be used directly for energy or transformed into “wood fuels” for use as energy.

(ENTR, 2013, European Commission, Enterprise and Industry Directorate General,  Indufor, Study on the wood raw material supply and demand for the EU wood-processing industries, December 4, 2013)

 

Functional unit

STA - Quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.)