E

Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
STAStandardsDICDictionaries
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Ecotoxicity

ECP - Environmental footprint impact category that addresses the toxic impacts on an ecosystem, which damage individual species and change the structure and function of the ecosystem. Ecotoxicity is a result of a variety of different toxicological mechanisms caused by the release of substances with a direct effect on the health of the ecosystem.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Effluent [AQU]

STL - An outflow, especially of liquid waste, in this context from an aquaculture operation.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)

 

Electricity generation

ORG (GLO) - The total amount of electricity generated by power only or combined heat and power plants including generation required for own use. This is also referred to as gross generation.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Elementary flow [LCA]

STA - Material or energy entering the system being studied that has been drawn from the environment without previous human transformation, or material or energy leaving the system being studied that is released into the environment without subsequent human transformation.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.) 

 

Energy crops

LEG - Crops supplied essentially for the production of the following energy products:

- Products considered biofuels listed according to Article 2, point 2 of Directive 2003/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 May 2003 on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport. They are at least the following (a) bioethanol, (b) biodiesel, (c) biogas, (d) biomethanol, (e) biodimethylether, (f) bio-ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether), (g) bio-MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether), (h) synthetic biofuels, (i) biohydrogen, (j) pure vegetable oil.

- Electric and thermal energy produced from biomass.

(EU, 2003, Council Regulation (EC) No 1782/2003 of 29 September 2003 establishing common rules for direct support schemes under the common agricultural policy and establishing certain support schemes for farmers and amending Regulations (EEC) No 2019/93, (EC) No 1452/2001, (EC) No 1453/2001, (EC) No 1454/2001, (EC) 1868/94, (EC) No 1251/1999, (EC) No 1254/1999, (EC) No 1673/2000, (EEC) No 2358/71 and (EC) No 2529/2001. OJ L270, 21.10.2003, pp. 1-69..)

 

STL - Crops that are unsuitable for human or animal consumption and are grown exclusively or primarily for the purpose of producing biomass for energy purposes in an agricultural rather than a forestry context.

(Allen, B., Kretschmer, B., Baldock, D., Menadue, H., Nanni, S., and Tucker, G., 2014, Space for energy crops – assessing the potential contribution to Europe’s energy future.. Report produced for BirdLife Europe, European Environmental Bureau and Transport & Environment. IEEP, London.)

 

Energy efficiency

ORG (GLO) - Something is more energy efficient if it delivers more services for the same energy input, or the same services for less energy input. For example, when a compact florescent light (CFL) bulb uses less energy than an incandescent bulb to produce the same amount of light, the CFL is considered to be more energy efficient.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Energy flow

STA - Input to or output from a unit process or product system, quantified in energy units.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.) 

 

Energy intensity

ORG (GLO) - A measure of total primary energy use per unit of gross domestic product.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Energy poverty

ORG (GLO) - A lack of access to modern energy services. These services are defined as household access to electricity and clean cooking facilities (e.g. fuels and stoves that do not cause air pollution in houses).

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Energy technology road map

ORG (GLO) - Focuses on a single technology and outlines a clear and systematic path for its deployment within a set time period. The road mapping process involves detailed analysis and assessments of aspects such as research, development and deployment of the technology, the legal, regulatory and financial issues, and consumer acceptance issues.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Evaluation [LCA]

STA - Element within the life cycle interpretation phase intended to establish confidence in the results of the life cycle assessment.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.) 

 

Evapotranspiration

ORG - The combined process of evaporation from the Earth’s surface and transpiration from vegetation.

(IPCC, 2014, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) 'Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change'.)

 

STL - Water lost to the atmosphere from the ground surface, evaporation from the capillary fringe of the groundwater table, and the transpiration of groundwater by plants whose roots tap the capillary fringe of the groundwater table.

(USGS, US Geological Survey, http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html, accessed 17 October 2016)

 

Environmental impact

ECP - Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, that wholly or partially results from an organisation’s activities, products or services (EMAS regulation).

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Environmental management system

STA - That part of the overall management system that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy of an organization.

(ISO, 2004, ISO 14001: 2004 Environmental Management Systems- requirements and guidance for use.)

 

Environmental mechanism [LCA]

STA - System of physical, chemical and biological processes for a given impact category linking the life cycle inventory analysis results to category indicators and to category endpoints.

(ISO, 2006a, EN ISO 14040:2006: Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and frameworks. July 2006.) 

 

Ethanol

ORG (GLO) - Is produced from fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but advanced generation technologies will allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Eutrophication

AGE (GLO) - A process of pollution that occurs when a lake or stream becomes over-rich in plant nutrient; as a consequence it becomes overgrown in algae and other aquatic plants. The plants die and decompose. In decomposing the plants rob the water of oxygen and the lake, river or stream becomes lifeless. Nitrate fertilizers which drain from the fields, nutrients from animal wastes and human sewage are the primary causes of eutrophication. They have high biological oxygen demand (BOD).

(EEA, European Environment Agency, Glossary: Environmental Terminology and Discovery Service (ETDS), http://glossary.eea.europa.eu//, accessed 19 March 2015).

 

DIC - The process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates. These typically promote excessive growth of algae. As the algae die and decompose, high levels of organic matter and the decomposing organisms deplete the water of available oxygen, causing the death of other organisms, such as fish. Eutrophication is a natural, slow-aging process for a water body, but human activity greatly speeds up the process.

(Art, 1993, Art, H.W., 1993, The dictionary of ecology and environmental science - 1st ed, H. Holt reference book, 632pp, New York.)

 

Exclusive economic zone [AQU]

STL - An area of the sea, typically within 200 nautical miles from the shore of a sovereign nation, in which the nation may claim the rights to exploit natural resources; defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)