Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Dead wood

ORG - All non-living woody biomass not contained in the litter, either standing, lying on the ground, or in the soil. Dead wood includes wood lying on the surface, dead roots, and stumps [larger than or equal to 10 cm in diameter or any other diameter used by the country].

(FAO, 2010, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Terms and Definitions Working Paper 144/E Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)



STA - Process leading to a significant change in the structure of a product, typically characterized by a change of properties (e.g. integrity, molecular mass or structure, mechanical strength) and/or by fragmentation, affected by environmental conditions, proceeding over a period of time and comprising one or more steps.

(Adapted from EN ISO 472:2013, EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation,  Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411), Bio-based products – Vocabulary, Mandate M/492, August 2014.)


Degraded land

ORG - Land that has experienced the longā€term loss of ecosystem function and services caused by disturbances from which the system cannot recover unaided.

(UNEP, 2007, Dent, D., Land In UNEP (Ed.), Global environmental outlook GEO4 (pp. 81–114). Nairobi, United Nations Environment Programme.)


AGE (GLO) - Any site or region that is damaged, harmed or made unfit for use by the introduction of unwanted substances, particularly microorganisms, chemicals, toxic and radioactive materials and wastes.

(EEA, European Environment Agency, Glossary: Environmental Terminology and Discovery Service (ETDS), http://glossary.eea.europa.eu//, accessed 19 March 2015.)


Demersal [AQU]

STL - Living near the bottom of a body of water.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)


Dewatering [ALG]

STL - Removal of excess water to concentrate the solid fraction of a solution.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)



AGE STL - The class of diatoms includes a very conspicuous number of golden brown unicellular organisms. The diatoms live mostly singly or attached to one another in chains of cells or in colonial aggregations, in aquatic and terrestrial habitats.

(Richmond, A., 2004, Handbook of Microalgal Culture: Biotechnology and Applied Phycology, Amos Richmond (editor), 588 pp, Wiley-Blackwell.;

EEA, 2011, Opinion of the EEA Scientific Committee on Greenhouse Gas Accounting to Bioenergy, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.)


Direct material input (DMI)

ECT (GLO) - Measures the direct input of materials for use in an economy, in other words, all materials which are of economic value and are used in production and consumption activities (excluding water flows).

DMI can be calculated as domestic (used) extraction plus imports. The relation of domestic material consumption (DMC) to DMI indicates to what extent inputs of material resources are used for own domestic consumption or are exported to be consumed in other economies.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)


Discards [AQU]

STL - Fish that are thrown away after being caught, usually because of undesirable characteristics (the wrong species, unmarketable, undersized, and so on); a subset of bycatch.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)


Domestic extraction used (DEU)

ECT (GLO) - Is the input from the natural environment to be used in the economy. DEU is the annual amount of raw material (except for water and air) extracted from the natural environment.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)


Domestic material consumption (DMC)

ECT (GLO) - Measures the total amount of materials directly used by an economy and is defined as the annual quantity of raw materials extracted from the domestic territory, plus all physical imports minus all physical exports.

The DMC indicator provides an assessment of the absolute level of the use of resources, and allows to distinguish consumption driven by domestic demand from consumption driven by the export market. It is important to note that the term "consumption" as used in DMC denotes apparent consumption and not final consumption. DMC does not include upstream "hidden" flows related to imports and exports of raw materials and products.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016.)


Domestic use

ECT (GLO) - Domestic use includes all possible uses of cereals in the reference area during the reference period (excluding stocks and export). Broken up into: (a) seeds or eggs for hatching, (b) losses, (c) animal feed, (d) industrial uses, (e) processing, (f) human consumption.

(Eurostat a, Eurostat's Concepts and Definitions Database, accessed 14 October 2016.)


Downstream [LCA]

ECP - Occurring along a product supply chain after the point of referral.

(EC, 2013a,  Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210)


Downstream processes [ALG]

AGE - The sequence of processes aiming at isolating valuable compounds, such as lipids, carbohydrates and protein products to be converted into useable forms of fuel and food commodities. 

(US DOE, 2010, National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Biomass Program, Washington D.C.)


Drop-in chemicals

STL - Chemicals derived from biomass that are identical to their petro-derived peers, independently of the feedstock, and constitute therefore their perfect replacement (e.g. isobutanol conventionally derives from propylene but the same molecule can also derive from sugars and is therefore a drop-in chemical).

(Soare, A. and Kersh, K., 2014, The bio-based chemical industry through 2030. Lux Research.)



STA - Ability of a product to retain the values of its properties under specified conditions.

-  Note: The conditions include several topics depending on the product such as wear, pressure, damage or durability concerning UV radiation.

(CEN/TC 411 adapted from STL - Vert et al., 2012, Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012)', Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410.)