B

Reference categories

LEGEU LegislationECPEC Policy Documents
ECTEC Technical DocumentsORGInternational Organisations (excluding organisations dealing with standards)
AGEAgency Documents (e.g. EEA, US agencies reports and glossaries)STLScientific & Technical Literature
STAStandardsDICDictionaries
OWNBiomass Study own Definition(GLO)Glossary (subcategory only)

Background processes [LCA]

ECP - Refers to those processes in the product life cycle for which no direct access to information is possible. For example, most of the upstream life-cycle processes and generally all processes further downstream will be considered part of the background processes.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        

Below ground biomass

ORG - All biomass of live roots. Fine roots of less than 2 mm diameter are excluded because these often cannot be distinguished empirically from soil organic matter or litter.

(FAO, 2010, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Terms and Definitions Working Paper 144/E Rome Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

Bio-based

STA - Derived from biomass.

- Note 1 to entry: Biomass can have undergone physical, chemical or biological treatment(s).

- Note 2 to entry: The correct spelling of "bio-based" is with a hyphen (-). It is however in common usage sometimes spelt without a hyphen.

- Note 3 to entry: The methods to determine and communicate "bio-based" as a product's characteristic are detailed in specific standards being developed by CEN/TC 411.

(EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation,  Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411), Bio-based products – Vocabulary, Mandate M/492, August 2014)

 

Bio-based carbon / Biogenic carbon

STA - Carbon derived from biomass.

- Note to entry: Biogenic carbon is defined in

(CEN ISO/TS 14067:2013. European Committee for Standardisation, and International Standards Organisation – Technical  Specification Greenhouse gases -- Carbon footprint of products -- Requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication )

 

Bio-based content / Biomass content

STA - Fraction of a product derived from biomass.

- Note 1 to entry: Normally expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the product.

- Note 2 to entry: For the methodology to determine the bio-based content, see the Technical Report drafted by the CEN Technical Committee CEN/TC 411.

(EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation,  Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411) , Bio-based products – Vocabulary, Mandate M/492, August 2014)

 

Bio-based plastic

STL - According to the Technical Report 15392, drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) in August 2009, ‘bio-based plastics’ are plastics derived from biomass. ‘Plastics’, as laid down in EN ISO 472, are materials that contain as an essential ingredient a high polymer and which at some stage in their processing into finished products can be shaped by flow

(Kabasci, S., 2014, Bio-Based Plastics: Materials and Applications, First Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published.)

 

STL - Bio-based plastics consist (partly) of bio-based (renewable) raw materials.

(Endres, H.J., Siebert-Raths, A., 2011, Engineering Biopolymers Markets, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications, Carl Hanser, M√ľnchen.)

 

Bio-based product

STA - Product wholly or partly derived from biomass.

(EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation,  Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411) , Bio-based products – Vocabulary, Mandate M/492, August 2014)

- Note 1 to entry: The bio-based product is normally characterized by the bio-based carbon content or the bio-based content. For the determination and declaration of the bio-based content and the bio-based carbon content, see the relevant standards developed by CEN/TC 411. 

- Note 2 to entry: Product can be an intermediate, material, semi-finished or final product.

- Note 3 to entry: "bio-based product" is often used to refer also to a product which is only partly bio-based. In those cases the claim should be accompanied by a quantification of the bio-based content.

 

Biodegradability

STL - Capability of being degraded by biological activity.

(Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012', Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410)

 

STA - The capability of the compostable material to be converted into CO2 under the action of micro-organisms. This property is measured with a laboratory standard test method: the EN 14046 (also published as ISO 14855: biodegradability under controlled composting conditions). In order to show complete biodegradability, a biodegradation level of at least 90% must be reached in less than 6 months. The norm EN 13432 is an harmonised norm. That is, it has been quoted in the Official Journal of the European Communities, it has been implemented in Europe at a national level, and it provides the presumption of conformity with the European Directive 94/62 EC on packaging and packaging waste

(CEN EN 13432:2000, European Committee for Standardisation, Requirements for packaging recoverable through composting and biodegradation - Test scheme and evaluation criteria for the final acceptance of packaging)

 

Biodegradable plastics / Compostable plastics

STL - Biodegradable plastics are entirely degraded by biological activity (compostable) without leaving behind any residue. They can be manufactured from renewable materials and fossil fuels, as well as mixtures of those.

(Ceresana Research, 2009, Market Study: Bioplastics, Konstanz, Germany.)

 

Biodegradation

AGE (GLO) - A process by which microbial organisms transform or alter (through metabolic or enzymatic action) the structure of chemicals introduced into the environment.

(US EPA, 2015, Terminology Services. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/termsandacronyms/search.do, accessed 24 October 2016)

 

STA - Degradation caused by biological activity, especially by enzymatic action, leading to a significant change in the chemical structure of a material.

(EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation,  Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411), Bio-based products – Vocabulary, Mandate M/492, August 2014)

 

Biodiesel

LEG - A methyl-ester produced from vegetable or animal oil, of diesel quality, to be used as biofuel in diesel engines.

(EU, 2009c, Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC,OJ L 140/16, 05.06.2009.)

 

ORG (GLO) - A diesel-equivalent, processed fuel made from the esterification (a chemical process that removes glycerine from oil) of both vegetable oils and animal fats.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

Biodiversity

ORG - Biological diversity (or biodiversity) is defined in the UN Convention on Biological Diversity as: "the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, 'inter alia', terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.

(UNEP, 1992, Convention on Biological Diversity. United Nations Environment Programme.)

 

ECT (GLO) - Biodiversity, a contraction of biological diversity, refers to the number, variety and variability of living organisms, including mankind, within a given area. A reduction or 'loss' of biodiversity undermines not only the natural environment, but also the economic and social goals of human societies, as mankind depends on natural resources for the food, energy, raw materials, clean air and clean water making life possible. The importance of preserving biodiversity, and the possible consequences of not doing so, has made it an international issue.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016)

 

Bioeconomy

ECP - The sustainable production of biomass and the conversion of biomass into value added products, such as food, feed, bio-based products and bioenergy. It includes the sectors of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, food and pulp and paper production, as well as parts of chemical, biotechnological and energy industries.

(EC, 2012a, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions -Innovating for Sustainable Growth: A Bioeconomy for Europe, COM(2012) 60 final.)

 

Bioenergy

ORG (GLO) - Renewable energy from living (or recently living) plants and animals; e.g. wood chippings, crops and manure. Plants store energy from the sun while animals get their energy from the plants they eat.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

AGE (GLO) - Energy made available from materials derived from biological sources.

(EEA, Glossary: Environmental Terminology and Discovery Service (ETDS) http://glossary.eea.europa.eu//, accessed 19 March 2015.)

 

STA - Energy derived from biomass. Developed by the CEN Technical Committee CEN/TC 335

(EN ISO 16559:2014, European Committee for Standardisation and International Standards Organisation, European Standarts, Solid biofuels - Terminology, definitions and descriptions, Mandate M/298)

 

Bioethanol

LEG -Ethanol produced from biomass.

(EU, 2009c, Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC,OJ L 140/16, 05.06.2009.)

 

Biofuel

LEG - Liquid or gaseous fuel for transport produced from biomass.

(EU, 2009c, Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC,OJ L 140/16, 05.06.2009.)

 

ORG (GLO) - A fuel produced from dry organic matter or combustible oils produced by plants. These fuels are considered renewable as long as the vegetation from which they derive is maintained or replanted. These include firewood, alcohol obtained from sugar fermentation and combustible oils extracted from oilseeds.

(UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Glossary of climate change acronyms.)

 

ORG (GLO) - Liquid, solid, or gaseous fuel produced by conversion of biomass. Examples include bioethanol from sugar cane or corn, charcoal or woodchips, and biogas from anaerobic decomposition of wastes.

(OECD, Glossary of Statistical Terms, http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/, accessed 25 March 2015)

 

ORG (GLO) - Fuel produced directly or indirectly from biomass.

(FAO, 2004, Unified Bioenergy Terminology, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

STL - Liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass feedstocks, used primarily for transportation.

(PCAST, 2006, President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2006, The Energy Imperative. Technology and the Role of Emerging Companies, Washington D.C.)

- Note: Transportation fuels made from biomass; such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas.

 

STA - Solid, liquid or gaseous fuel produced directly or indirectly from biomass.

(EN ISO 16559:2014, European Committee for Standardisation and International Standards Organisation, European Standards, Solid biofuels - Terminology, definitions and descriptions, Mandate M/298)

 

(Advanced) Biofuels

ECP - Advanced (second and third generation) biofuels are biofuels produced from feedstock that do not compete directly with food and feed crops, such as wastes and agricultural residues (i.e. wheat straw, municipal waste), non-food crops (i.e. Miscanthus and short rotation coppice) and algae.

(EC, 2012d, European Commission MEMO: Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC), Brussels, 17 October 2012 (Last update: 28-07-2015).)

 

(Conventional) Biofuels

ECP - First generation or conventionally produced biofuels are biofuels produced from food crops, such as sugar, starch and vegetable oils. They are produced from land using feedstock which can also be used for food and feed.

(EC, 2012d, European Commission MEMO: Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC), Brussels, 17 October 2012 (Last update: 28-07-2015).)

 

Biogas

ORG (GLO) - Mixture of methane and CO2 produced by bacterial degradation of organic matter and used as a fuel.

(IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 23 September 2015)

 

AGE (GLO) - Gas, rich in methane, which is produced by the fermentation of animal dung, human sewage or crop residues in an air-tight container. It is used as a fuel to heat stoves, lamps, run small machines and to generate electricity.

(EEA, Glossary: Environmental Terminology and Discovery Service (ETDS), http://glossary.eea.europa.eu//, accessed 19 March 2015.)

 

Biogenic

DIC - Produced by living organisms or biological processes.

(Merriam Webster, 2015. Free online dictionary, http://www.merriam-webster.com)

 

Bioliquids

LEG - Bioliquids are liquid fuels made from biomass used for energy purposes other than transport.

(EU, 2009c, Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC,OJ L 140/16, 05.06.2009.)

 

Biolubricant

DIC - Lubricants derived from biomass; whereas lubricants are substances, such as oil or grease, used for minimizing friction, especially in an engine or component.

(Oxford dictionaries, Oxford Dictionaries)

- Note: Standards on biolubricants are discussed concerning the bio-based share and the biodegradability.

In CEN the CEN/TC 19/WG 33 is working on standards on biolubricants.

 

Biomass

LEG - biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from biological origin from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste.

(EU, 2009c, Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC,OJ L 140/16, 05.06.2009.)

 

ECT (GLO) - Biomass is organic, non-fossil material of biological origin that can be used for heat production or electricity generation. It includes: wood and wood waste; agricultural crops; biogas; municipal solid waste; biofuels.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016)

 

ORG - Organic material both above ground and below ground and both living and dead, e.g., trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, roots etc. Biomass includes the pool definition for above – and below –ground biomass.

(FAO, 2007, Forests and Climate Change Working Paper. Definitional issues related to reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.)

 

AGE (GLO) - All organic matter that derives from the photosynthetic conversion of solar energy.

(EEA, Glossary: Environmental Terminology and Discovery Service (ETDS) http://glossary.eea.europa.eu//, accessed 19 March 2015.)

 

AGE - Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood wastes and residues, plants (including aquatics plants), grasses, residues, fibers, and animal wastes, municipal wastes, and other waste materials.

(USITC, 2008, Industrial Biotechnology: Development and Adoption by the U.S. Chemical and Biofuels Industry. United States Industry and Trade Commission, July 2008.)

 

STL - Living systems and collection of organic substances produced by living systems that are exploitable as materials, including recent post-mortem residues.

(Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012, Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410)

 

STA - Material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized.

(EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation,  Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411) , Bio-based products – Vocabulary , Mandate M/492, August 2014)

Examples (whole or parts of) plants, trees, algae, marine organisms, micro-organisms, animals, etc.

 

Biomass potential

OWN - Different potentials can be distinguished, as defined below:

Biomass Theoretical potential: The maximum over time non-declining amount of biomass which can be theoretically extracted on a long term basis within fundamental bio-physical limits.

Biomass Technical potential: Biomass potential which is available under the current infrastructure conditions and with the current technological possibilities. It can be in the short term temporarily higher than the theoretical potential, it must however respect its constraints.

Biomass Economic potential: Fraction of technical potential which meets the criteria of economic profitability within the given framework conditions using existing infrastructure and technology available in that location.

Biomass Implementation potential: The potential that can be implemented within a certain time frame and under concrete socio-political framework conditions, including economic, institutional and social constraints and policy incentives. It can be higher than the economic potential; it must respect the constraints of the theoretical potential.

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand)

 

Biomaterial

STL - Material exploited in contact with living tissues, organisms, or microorganisms.

(Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012, Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410)

- Note: biomaterials are not bio-based materials or products

 

DIC - Synthetic or natural material suitable for use in constructing artificial organs and prostheses or to replace bone or tissue.

(Oxford dictionaries, Oxford Dictionaries)

 

Bioplastic

STL - The term “bioplastics” should ideally be avoided. It is preferable to use bio-based plastic if it is a plastic derived from biomass or biodegradable plastic if it biodegrades. Both categories overlap but there also are bio-based plastics that are not biodegradable as well as biodegradable plastics that are not bio-based.

(Nova-Institute, 2014, 'Annex V' in Study on "Methodology framework for the bioeconomy observatory""' - BISO Project - January 2014.)

 

Biopolymer

AGE - A polymer comprised, at least in part, of building blocks called monomers, produced from renewable feedstocks such as corn. An alternate definition for biopolymer, includes all biologically produced polymers like DNA, RNA and proteins.

(USITC, 2008, Industrial Biotechnology: Development and Adoption by the U.S. Chemical and Biofuels Industry. United States Industry and Trade Commission, July 2008. )

 

STL - Substance composed of one type of biomacromolecules.

(Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012, Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410)

 

Bioreactor [ALG]

STL - Refers to any device or system that supports a biologically active environment.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

Biorefinery

AGE - A biorefinery is an overall concept of a processing plant where biomass feedstocks are converted and extracted into a spectrum of valuable products.

(US DOE, 1997, Energy, Environmental and Economics (e3) Handbook, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington D.C.)

 

STL - Biorefinery refers to the conversion of biomass feedstock into a host of valuable chemicals and energy with minimal waste and emissions.

(Demirbas, A., 2010, 'Biorefineries for Biomass Upgrading Facilities', Springer London)

 

Biosolvent

DIC - Solvents derived from biomass; whereas solvents are liquids in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.

(Oxford dictionaries, Oxford Dictionaries)

 

Biosurfactant

STL - DIC Surfactants derived from biomass; whereas surfactants are molecules that consist of one hydrophilic (having strong affinity with water) part and one hydrophobic (repelling water) part. (Kjellin & Johansson, 2010) or substances that tends to reduce the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved.

(Oxford dictionaries, Oxford Dictionaries)

 

Biosynthesis

STL - Production of chemical compounds from simpler substances, reactions usually carried out in living cells.

(Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.)

 

Biotechnology

ECT (GLO) ORG - The application of science and technology to living organisms, as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or non-living materials for the production of knowledge, goods and services.

(Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016)

 

ORG - Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

(UNEP, 1992, Convention on Biological Diversity. United Nations Environment Programme.)

 

AGE (GLO) - Techniques that use living organisms or parts of organisms to produce a variety of products (from medicines to industrial enzymes) to improve plants or animals or to develop microorganisms to remove toxics from bodies of water, or act as pesticides.

(US EPA, 2015, Terminology Services. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/termsandacronyms/search.do, accessed 24 October 2016.)

 

STL - Integration of natural sciences and engineering in order to achieve the application of organisms, cells, parts thereof, and their molecular analogues for products and services.

(Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012, Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410)

 

Black carbon

ORG - Operationally defined aerosol species based on measurement of light absorption and chemical reactivity and/or thermal stability. Black carbon is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot. It consists of pure carbon in several linked forms. Black carbon warms the Earth by absorbing heat in the atmosphere and by reducing albedo, the ability to reflect sunlight, when deposited on snow and ice.

(UNEP/WMO, 2011, Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone, UNEP, Nairobi.)

 

Black liquor

OWN - According to IEA black liquor is a by-product from chemical pulping processes that consists of lignin residue combined with water and the chemicals used for extracting lignin. However it can also be referred to as a group of co-products and by-products.

(BIOMASS STUDY, 2016, European Commission, JRC, ONGOING Mandate on the provision of data and analysis on a long-term basis on biomass supply and demand )

 

Brackish-water [AQU]

ORG (GLO) - Water bodies with a salinity intermediate between seawater and freshwater, usually showing wide salinity fluctuations.

(FAOb, Fisheries Glossary, http://www.fao.org/fi/glossary/default.asp, accessed 23 September 2015.)

 

Broodstock [AQU]

STL - Captured wild organisms (such as shrimp or salmon) that are used for breeding.

(Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)

 

Business to Business (B2B)

ECP - Describes transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Business to Consumers (B2C)

ECP - Describes transactions between business and consumers, such as between retailers and consumers. According to ISO 14025:2006, a consumer is defined as “an individual member of the general public purchasing or using goods, property or services for private purposes”.

(EC, 2013a, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.)

 

Bycatch [AQU]

STL - The inadvertent catch of organisms that were not specifically targeted by a fishing operation (for example, non-target fish species, marine mammals, seabirds) that are either discarded (see “discards”) or landed for commercial sale.

(Delgado et al., 2003, Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.)

 

By-product

AGE (GLO) - An incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and marketable, or it can have negative ecological consequences.

(US EPA, 2015, Terminology Services. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/termsandacronyms/search.do, accessed 24 October 2015.)

 

DIC - An incidental or secondary product made in the manufacture or synthesis of something else.

(Oxford dictionaries, Oxford Dictionaries)