A (25) | B (38) | C (40) | D (15) | E (18) | F (30) | G (14) | H (10) | I (14) | J (1) | K (1) | L (21) | M (16) | N (5) | O (5) | P (26) | R (14) | S (27) | T (9) | U (6) | W (10) | Y (1)

B

Background process

Refers to those processes in the product life cycle for which no direct access to information is possible. For example, most of the upstream life-cycle processes and generally all processes further downstream will be considered part of the background processes.
EC, 2013, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.
Source category: EC Policy Documents

Below ground biomass

All biomass of live roots. Fine roots of less than 2 mm diameter are excluded because these often cannot be distinguished empirically from soil organic matter or litter.
FAO, 2010, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Source category: International Organisations

Bio-based

Derived from biomass. - Note 1 to entry: Biomass can have undergone physical, chemical or biological treatment(s). - Note 2 to entry: The correct spelling of "bio-based" is with a hyphen (-). It is however in common usage sometimes spelt without a hyphen. - Note 3 to entry: The methods to determine and communicate "bio-based" as a product's characteristic are detailed in specific standards being developed by CEN/TC 411.
EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation, Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411) , Bio-based products – Vocabulary , Mandate M/492, August 2014.
Source category: Standards

Bio-based content / Biomass content

Fraction of a product derived from biomass. - Note 1 to entry: Normally expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the product. - Note 2 to entry: For the methodology to determine the bio-based content, see the Technical Report drafted by the CEN Technical Committee CEN/TC 411.
EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation, Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411) , Bio-based products – Vocabulary , Mandate M/492, August 2014.
Source category: Standards

Bio-based plastic

According to the Technical Report 15392, drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) in August 2009, ‘bio-based plastics’ are plastics derived from biomass. ‘Plastics’, as laid down in EN ISO 472, are materials that contain as an essential ingredient a high polymer and which at some stage in their processing into finished products can be shaped by flow
Kabasci, S., 2014, Bio-Based Plastics: Materials and Applications, First Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published.
Source category: Scientific & Technical Literature

Bio-based product

Product wholly or partly derived from biomass. - Note 1 to entry: The bio-based product is normally characterized by the bio-based carbon content or the bio-based content. For the determination and declaration of the bio-based content and the bio-based carbon content, see the relevant standards developed by CEN/TC 411. - Note 2 to entry: Product can be an intermediate, material, semi-finished or final product. - Note 3 to entry: "bio-based product" is often used to refer also to a product which is only partly bio-based. In those cases the claim should be accompanied by a quantification of the bio-based content.
EN 16575:2014, European Committee for Standardisation, Technical Committee 411 (CEN TC/411) , Bio-based products – Vocabulary , Mandate M/492, August 2014.
Source category: Standards

Biodegradability

Capability of being degraded by biological activity.
Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012)', Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410.
Source category: Scientific & Technical Literature

Biodegradable plastics / Compostable plastics

Biodegradable plastics are entirely degraded by biological activity (compostable) without leaving behind any residue. They can be manufactured from renewable materials and fossil fuels, as well as mixtures of those.
Ceresana Research, 2009, Market Study: Bioplastics, Konstanz, Germany.
Source category: Scientific & Technical Literature

Biodegradation

A process by which microbial organisms transform or alter (through metabolic or enzymatic action) the structure of chemicals introduced into the environment.
US EPA, 2015, Terminology Services. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/termsandacronyms/search.do, accessed 27 February 2015.
Source category: International Organisations

Biodiversity

Biodiversity, a contraction of biological diversity, refers to the number, variety and variability of living organisms, including mankind, within a given area. A reduction or 'loss' of biodiversity undermines not only the natural environment, but also the economic and social goals of human societies, as mankind depends on natural resources for the food, energy, raw materials, clean air and clean water making life possible. The importance of preserving biodiversity, and the possible consequences of not doing so, has made it an international issue.
Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016
Source category: EC Technical Documents

Bioeconomy

The sustainable production of biomass and the conversion of biomass into value added products, such as food, feed, bio-based products and bioenergy. It includes the sectors of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, food and pulp and paper production, as well as parts of chemical, biotechnological and energy industries.
EC, 2012a, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions -Innovating for Sustainable Growth: A Bioeconomy for Europe, COM(2012) 60 final.
Source category: EC Policy Documents

Biofuels (Conventional)

First generation or conventionally produced biofuels are biofuels produced from food crops, such as sugar, starch and vegetable oils. They are produced from land using feedstock which can also be used for food and feed.
EC, 2012d, European Commission MEMO: Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC), Brussels, 17 October 2012 (Last update: 12-02-2015).
Source category: EC Policy Documents

Biofuels (Advanced)

Advanced (second and third generation) biofuels are biofuels produced from feedstock that do not compete directly with food and feed crops, such as wastes and agricultural residues (i.e. wheat straw, municipal waste), non-food crops (i.e. Miscanthus and short rotation coppice) and algae.
EC, 2012d, European Commission MEMO: Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC), Brussels, 17 October 2012 (Last update: 12-02-2015).
Source category: EC Policy Documents

Biogas

<p>Mixture of methane and CO2 produced by bacterial degradation of organic matter and used as a fuel.</p>
IEA, International Energy Agency, Glossary of term, accessed 27/06/2018.
Source category: International Organisations

Biogenic

Produced by living organisms or biological processes.
Merriam Webster, 2015. Free online dictionary
Source category: Dictionaries

Biomass

biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from biological origin from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste.
EU, 2009c, Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC,OJ L 140/16, 05.06.2009.
Source category: EU Legislation

Biomass potential

<p>Different potentials can be distinguished, as defined below: - Biomass Theoretical potential: The maximum over time non-declining amount of biomass which can be theoretically extracted on a long term basis within fundamental bio-physical limits. - Biomass Technical potential: Biomass potential which is available under the current infrastructure conditions and with the current technological possibilities. It can be in the short term temporarily higher than the theoretical potential, it must however respect its constraints. - Biomass Economic potential: Fraction of technical potential which meets the criteria of economic profitability within the given framework conditions using existing infrastructure and technology available in that location. - Biomass Implementation potential: The potential that can be implemented within a certain time frame and under concrete socio-political framework conditions, including economic, institutional and social constraints and policy incentives. It can be higher than the economic potential; it must respect the constraints of the theoretical potential.</p>
European Commission, JRC, Biomass production, supply, uses and flows in the European Union. 2018
Source category: Biomass Study own Definition

Biomaterial

Material exploited in contact with living tissues, organisms, or microorganisms. - Note: biomaterials are not bio-based materials or products.
Vert, M., Y. Doi, et al. (IUPAC Polymer Division) 2012, 'Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012)', Pure Applied Chemistry 84 (2), pp. 377-410.
Source category: Scientific & Technical Literature

Bioplastic

The term “bioplastics” should ideally be avoided. It is preferable to use bio-based plastic if it is a plastic derived from biomass or biodegradable plastic if it biodegrades. Both categories overlap but there also are bio-based plastics that are not biodegradable as well as biodegradable plastics that are not bio-based.
Nova-Institute, 2014, 'Annex V' in Study on "Methodology framework for the bioeconomy observatory"' - BISO Project - January 2014.
Source category: Scientific & Technical Literature

Biopolymer

A polymer comprised, at least in part, of building blocks called monomers, produced from renewable feedstocks such as corn. An alternate definition for biopolymer, includes all biologically produced polymers like DNA, RNA and proteins.
USITC, 2008, Industrial Biotechnology: Development and Adoption by the U.S. Chemical and Biofuels Industry. United States Industry and Trade Commission, July 2008. http://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/pub4020.pdf
Source category: Agency Documents

Bioreactor

Refers to any device or system that supports a biologically active environment.
Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.
Source category: Scientific & Technical Literature

Biorefinery

A biorefinery is an overall concept of a processing plant where biomass feedstocks are converted and extracted into a spectrum of valuable products.
US DOE, 1997, Energy, Environmental and Economics (e3) Handbook, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington D.C.
Source category: Agency Documents

Biosurfactant

<p>Surfactants derived from biomass; whereas surfactants are molecules that consist of one hydrophilic (having strong affinity with water) part and one hydrophobic (repelling water) part (Kjellin &amp; Johansson, 2010) or substances that tend to reduce the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved (Oxford dictionaries).</p>
Kjellin, M.; Johansson, I., 2010, Surfactants from Renewable Resources, Wiley series in renewable resources, March 2010.
Source category: Scientific & Technical Literature

Biosynthesis

Production of chemical compounds from simpler substances, reactions usually carried out in living cells.
Darzins, A., Pienkos, P. and Edye, L., 2010, Current status and potential for algal biofuels production. A report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Report T39-T2, August 2010.
Source category: Scientific & Technical Literature

Biotechnology

The application of science and technology to living organisms, as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or non-living materials for the production of knowledge, goods and services.
Eurostat b, Glossary, accessed 14 October 2016

Black carbon

Operationally defined aerosol species based on measurement of light absorption and chemical reactivity and/or thermal stability. Black carbon is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot. It consists of pure carbon in several linked forms. Black carbon warms the Earth by absorbing heat in the atmosphere and by reducing albedo, the ability to reflect sunlight, when deposited on snow and ice.
UNEP/WMO, 2011, Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone, UNEP, Nairobi.
Source category: International Organisations

Black liquor

<p>According to IEA black liquor is a by-product from chemical pulping processes that consists of lignin residue combined with water and the chemicals used for extracting lignin. However it can also be referred to as a group of co-products and by-products.</p>
European Commission, JRC, Biomass production, supply, uses and flows in the European Union. 2018
Source category: Biomass Study own Definition

Brackish-water

Water bodies with a salinity intermediate between seawater and freshwater, usually showing wide salinity fluctuations.
FAOb, Fisheries Glossary, accessed 19 March 2015
Source category: International Organisations

Business to Business

Describes transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer.
EC, 2013, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.
Source category: EC Policy Documents

Business to Consumers

Describes transactions between business and consumers, such as between retailers and consumers. According to ISO 14025:2006, a consumer is defined as “an individual member of the general public purchasing or using goods, property or services for private purposes”.
EC, 2013, Commission Recommendation of 9 April 2013 on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. OJ L124, 04.05.2013, pp. 1-210.
Source category: EC Policy Documents

Bycatch

The inadvertent catch of organisms that were not specifically targeted by a fishing operation (for example, non-target fish species, marine mammals, seabirds) that are either discarded (see “discards”) or landed for commercial sale.
Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M., 2003, Fish to 2020. Supply and demand in changing global markets, Appendix F, WorldFishCenter Technical Report 62, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washinton D.C., World Fish Center, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.
Source category: Scientific & Technical Literature

By-product

<p>An incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and marketable, or it can have negative ecological consequences.</p>
US EPA, 2015, Terminology Services. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, accessed 27 February 2015.
Source category: Agency Documents